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Éviter les barbarismes

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Le développement du langage oral et de la communication par Internet soumet l’écrit à des fautes de langue de plus en plus fréquentes. On les appelle, dans un sens courant, des barbarismes. Petite mise au point sur des erreurs à éviter à tout prix.



Loin de nous, fervent barbariste, l’idée d’enduire le lecteur en erreur en évoquant les multiples sens possibles du mot. Dans le but de solutionner le mystère à ce mot donc, il faut se baser sur une définition excessivement précise de manière à ce que l’on ne se trompe plus.*

Le barbarisme est une faute de langage qui consiste à se servir de mots altérés et, par extension, de mots forgés ou employés dans un sens contraire au bon usage. Nous employons ici le mot dans le sens courant de toute faute contre la langue (il faudrait différencier avec le solécisme qui est une faute contre les règles de la syntaxe et qui porte sur la construction de la phrase).

Dans notre petit apologue fort cruel envers l’oreille quasi-absolue du lecteur mélomane, nous avons ainsi confondu « enduire » et « induire », voulu atteindre un but dans lequel nous étions déjà (on dira « dans le dessein »), « solutionné » le mystère au lieu de le « résoudre » (doublon), employé la préposition « à » à la place de « de », nous « sommes basé sur » (« fonder sur » reste préférable), avons réclamé une définition « excessivement » précise (mais comment peut-elle être trop précise ? On dira « extrêmement »), et avons fini en apothèose avec « de manière à ce que » à la place de « de manière que ». Quel talent nous direz-vous (ou pendez-le haut et court, c’est selon) !

Reconnaître un barbarisme impose une attention constante à la langue, mais, avant de se plaindre à une quelconque société de musiciens de chambre, il faudra prendre garde de ne pas juger trop sévèrement certains barbarismes qui sont en fait des néologismes. Ce fut ainsi le cas de « baser », « sélectionner » ou de « directive ». Mais attention : la réciproque est vraie.

* Ce qui donne : « Loin de nous, fervent barbariste, l’idée d’induire le lecteur en erreur en évoquant les multiples sens possibles du mot. Dans le dessein de résoudre le mystère de ce mot donc, il faut se fonder sur une définition extrêmement précise de manière que l’on ne se trompe plus. »
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